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سالانه ۱۷.۵ تن خاک در هکتار در خراسان شمالی از دست می رود

سالانه ۱۷.۵ تن خاک در هکتار در خراسان شمالی از دست می رود

ایسنا/خراسان شمالی مدیرکل منابع طبیعی و آبخیزداری خراسان شمالی گفت: خشکسالی و تغییر اقلیم بحران های زیادی را ایجاد کرده و بهره برداری مفرط از اراضی و سیلاب ها زمینه فرسایش زیاد خاک را فراهم کرده است. حسن وحید در گفت و گو با ایسنا، افزود: در برخی از مناطق استان و کشور تولید سال های

سالانه ۱۷.۵ تن خاک در هکتار در خراسان شمالی از دست می رود

ایسنا/خراسان شمالی مدیرکل منابع طبیعی و آبخیزداری خراسان شمالی گفت: خشکسالی و تغییر اقلیم بحران های زیادی را ایجاد کرده و بهره برداری مفرط از اراضی و سیلاب ها زمینه فرسایش زیاد خاک را فراهم کرده است.

حسن وحید در گفت و گو با ایسنا، افزود: در برخی از مناطق استان و کشور تولید سال های قبل را نداریم که این امر ناشی از نوع بهره برداری های قبل ما می شود و اگر نگاهی به مراتع و جنگل ها انداخته شود می توان دید که توان آن ها کاهش یافته است.

وی با اشاره به اینکه سطح منابع طبیعی خراسان شمالی دو میلیون و ۳۰۰ هکتار است و باید برای حفاظت از آن ها عزم جدی را به کار بست، ادامه داد: متاسفانه ۶۵ درصد از مساحت خراسان شمالی فرسایش پذیر است و میزان فرسایش پذیری جای جای استان بسیار بالا است.

وحید اظهارکرد: براساس مطالعات انجام شده متوسط فرسایش خاک در این استان ۱۷.۵ تن در هکتار است یعنی سالانه ۱۷.۵ تن خاک در سال در این استان از دست می رود این در حالی است که میزان فرسایش خاک در کشور ۱۵ تن و فرسایش طبیعی خاک ۱۰ تن می باشد.

به گفته وی مهمترین علت فرسایش خاک در این استان بهره برداری بیش از اندازه از آن است.

دو میلیون هکتار از مساحت استان تحت تاثیر فرسایش قرار دارد

وی با اشاره به فرسایش بادی در استان اظهارکرد: جنوب استان، مناطق تحت تاثیر فرسایش بادی است که بیش از ۱۹۰ هزار هکتار از مساحت این منطقه تحت تاثیر این عارضه قرار دارد.

این مقام مسئول به کانون های فرسایش بادی با شدت کم، متوسط و بالا بیان کرد: مساحت کانون های فرسایشی بادی با شدت کم در این استان کمتر است اما ۱۳ هزار هکتار از اراضی تحت تاثیر کانون های فرسایشی بادی با شدت متوسط قرار دارند.

وی با تاکید بر این مطلب که بر اساس ارزیابی های صورت گرفته میزان فرسایش خاک در جنگل های دست کاشت به حداقل رسیده و کنترل شده است، ادامه داد: از سوی دیگر ۲۱ درصد از اراضی استان به شدت تحت تاثیر فرسایش آبی قرار دارند که بیشترین حجم آن در منطقه شمال خراسان شمالی قرار دارد.

مدیر کل منابع طبیعی و آبخیزداری خراسان شمالی خاطرنشان کرد: در مجموع دو میلیون هکتار از سطح این استان متاثر از فرسایش های متوسط و شدید هستند.

یک سوم سد شیرین دره را رسوب گرفته است

وی با بیان اینکه اجرای عملیات آبخیزداری یکی از راه های کنترل فرسایش خاک است، گفت: تاکنون برای اجرای این عملیات در سطح یک میلیون و ۳۳ هزار هکتار مطالعه انجام شده و از ۱۱۴ حوزه مطالعه شده در ۸۱ حوزه آبخیز با مساحت ۷۰۰ هزار هکتار که ۲۵ درصد مساحت استان را تشکیل می دهد، عملیات آبخیزداری انجام شده است.

وی به اختلاف نظر میان شرکت آب منطقه ای و اداره کل منابع طبیعی در ارتباط با سدها نیز اشاره کرد و گفت: اداره کل منابع طبیعی معتقد است که آب باید در داخل حوزه سد کنترل شود این در حالی است که شرکت آب منطقه ای اعتقاد دارد که آب باید در خروجی حوزه کنترل شود.

وحید با بیان اینکه مهمترین سد خراسان شمالی، شیرین دره در شهرستان مانه و سملقان است، افزود: ۷۰ درصد از مطالعات آبخیزداری در این شد انجام شده اما متاسفانه فرسایش رسوب در آنجا خیلی بالاست و از ۹۰ میلیون متر مکعب ظرفیت این سد هم اکنون یک سوم آن را رسوب گرفته است.

وی ادامه داد: اعتبارات میلیاردی برای سدسازی هزینه می شود اما می توان با مقدار خیلی کمی از اعتبار جلوی ورود و نشست رسوب به داخل حوضچه را گرفت.

وی تصریح کرد: با اقدامات انجام شده توسط این اداره کل در این استان موفق شده ایم جلوی ۱.۸ میلیون تن از فرسایش خاک به ارزش اقتصادی ۲.۸ هزار میلیارد تومان را بگیریم.

فراموشی سنت هایی که جلوی فرسایش خاک را می گرفت

این مقام مسئول خطرنشان کرد: در غرب و جنوب شرق استان با مشکل فرونشست زمین مواجه هستیم که این امر ناشی از فرسایش شدید خاک است اما می توان با انجام کارهای خیلی کوچک جلوی آن را گرفت.

وی افزود: متاسفانه سنت ها را فراموش کرده ایم، در گذشته در حاشیه باغ ها درخت های بید و صنوبر کاشته می‌شد که این امر کمک خیلی زیادی به جلوگیری از فرسایش آبی می کرد.

وی تاکیدکرد: پوشش گیاهی کمک خیلی زیادی به حفاظت آب و خاک می کند و نباید اجازه دهیم مراتعی که شرایط خوب دارند تخریب شوند.

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