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نقش ادبیات در دوران کرونا

نقش ادبیات در دوران کرونا

مراسم افتتاحیه «وبینار بین‌المللی ادبیات در روزگار کرونا» با بحث درباره مناسبات میان ادبیات و بحران‌های اجتماعی در طول تاریخ و بحرانی چون کرونا برگزار شد. به گزارش ایسنا به نقل از روابط‌عمومی خانه کتاب و ادبیات ایران، آیین افتتاحیه «وبینار بین‌المللی ادبیات در روزگار کرونا» روز شنبه (نوزدهم تیرماه ۱۴۰۰) با حضور ایوب دهقانکار (مدیرعامل

نقش ادبیات در دوران کرونا

مراسم افتتاحیه «وبینار بین‌المللی ادبیات در روزگار کرونا» با بحث درباره مناسبات میان ادبیات و بحران‌های اجتماعی در طول تاریخ و بحرانی چون کرونا برگزار شد.

به گزارش ایسنا به نقل از روابط‌عمومی خانه کتاب و ادبیات ایران، آیین افتتاحیه «وبینار بین‌المللی ادبیات در روزگار کرونا» روز شنبه (نوزدهم تیرماه ۱۴۰۰) با حضور ایوب دهقانکار (مدیرعامل خانه کتاب و ادبیات ایران)، حمیدرضا نمازی (دبیر علمی وبینار) و مصطفی راضی جلالی (مدیر دفتر گسترش شعر و ادبیات داستانی خانه کتاب و ادبیات ایران) در خانه کتاب و ادبیات ایران برگزار شد.

در ابتدای این آیین، ایوب دهقانکار درباره چرایی برگزاری «وبینار بین‌المللی ادبیات در روزگار کرونا» اظهار کرد: همان‌طور که از عنوان همایش به خوبی پیداست، این همایش دو محور دارد؛ ادبیات و کرونا. در نگاه اول ممکن است ادبیات به عنوان یکی از شاخه‌های علوم انسانی که خود شامل نظم، نثر، عروض و قافیه، صرف، نحو، معانی، بدیع و… می‌شود با یک ویروس آزمایشگاهی به نام کووید ۱۹ که حاصل کشف دانشمندان علوم پزشکی است، نه تنها ارتباط چندانی نداشته باشند، بلکه کاملا ناسازگار و به قول انگلیسی‌زبان‌ها mutually exclusive و به قول عرب‌زبان‌ها مانعه‌الجمع باشند. بر این اساس، سوالی که ممکن است در ذهن مخاطب ایجاد شود این است که چگونه می‌شود این دو مفهوم و ماهیت به ظاهر نامرتبط و نامانوس یعنی ادبیات و کرونا را با یکدیگر جمع کرد و با این موضوع، همایش و وبینار برگزار کرد.

دهقانکار همچنین گفت: دو پرسش کلان که هدف از برگزاری این همایش پیدا کردن پاسخ‌هایی برای آن‌ها است عبارتند از: «نقش ادبیات به‌طور عام در مواجهه با آسیب‌های اجتماعی چیست؟» و «آیا اصولا می‌توان بین ادبیات و بحران‌های اجتماعی مناسباتی پیدا کرد یا خیر؟» و در صورتی که پاسخ ما به پرسش اول «بلی» باشد، پرسش دوم به این شکل مطرح می‌شود: «نقش ادبیات فارسی به‌طور خاص در مواجهه با آسیب‌های اجتماعی چیست؟»

او با بیان این‌که برای پاسخ به پرسش اول، ضروری است ادبیات را از منظری کلان‌تر بینیم، تصریح کرد: بدین صورت که در ابتدا ادبیات را جزیی از پدیده بزرگ‌تری به نام زبان بدانیم. با این نگاه، ادبیات حالت خاصی از بروز و ظهور زبان انسان است؛ زبان انسان معجزه خلقت است که هم در مضامین دینی ما و هم در تئوری‌های علمی روز دنیا به آن اشاره شده است؛ از جمله در آثار نوام چامسکی به عنوان یکی از مطرح‌ترین زبان‌شناسان دنیا که تئوری فطری‌گرایی را مطرح کرده است؛ چامسکی معتقد است زبان موهبتی طبیعی است‌ که در فطرت انسان‌ها به ودیعت گذاشته شده است. به همین دلیل است که زبان‌شناسان این تئوری را فطری‌گرایی (Nativism) نام نهاده‌اند. البته قرن‌ها پیش از مطرح شدن این تئوری توسط چامسکی، خداوند متعال در قرآن کریم در آیات متعددی به صورت تلویحی به این موضوع اشاره فرموده است. از جمله در آیات ابتدایی سوره مبارکه الرَّحْمَن (آیات شریفه ۱ تا ۴).

مدیرعامل خانه کتاب و ادبیات ایران در ادامه سخنان خود بر این‌که به اعتقاد بسیاری از دانشمندان تمام پیشرفت‌های بشر مرهون ویژگی‌ قوه ناطقه (زبان) انسان است تاکید کرد و ادبیات را بخشی از زبان خواند و اظهار کرد: ادبیات یکی از نمودها و بروزهای ویژگی‌ زبانی انسان است در قالبی زیباتر و گاهی با انحرافی پذیرفتنی از معیار تجلی پیدا می‌کند؛ درواقع ادبیات ورژن زیبایی‌‎شناختی زبان است که در ژانرهای مختلف همچون شعر، داستان، نمایشنامه و… نمود پیدا می‌کند. حال برای رسیدن به پاسخی برای اولین پرسش، باید ببینیم مناسبات زبان و نمود زیبایی‎‌شناختی آن یعنی ادبیات، با فرهنگ چیست؟ در این خصوص باید گفت که دانشمندان علوم شناختی، جامعه‌شناسی، تحلیل گفتمان، تحلیل و گفتمان انتقادی و… به اندازه کافی در این خصوص صحبت کرده‌اند و صدها کتاب و مقاله علمی درباره این موضوع نوشته شده است که از جمله آن می‌توان به تئوری‌های متعدد علمی همچون نسبی‌گرایی زبانی(Linguistic Relativism) و جبرگرایی زبانی (Linguistic Determinism) اشاره کرد. حرف مشترک همه تئوری‌ها این است که زبان بروز و تجلی افکار انسان است؛ حال برخی دانشمندان، افکار و ایدئولوژی را متاثر از زبان می‌دانند و بعضی دیگر زبان را متاثر از جهان‌بینی می‌بینند. اما درعین‌حال فصل مشترک همه این نظریه‌ها این است که برهم‌کنش زبان و جهان‌بینی، فرهنگ و اندیشه اثبات شده است و مورد پذیرش طرفداران هر دو تئوری است.

او در پاسخ به پرسش دوم یعنی نقش و جایگاه اجتماعی زبان و ادبیات فارسی در مواجهه با شرایط جامعه و آسیب‌های اجتماعی تاکید کرد: برای بررسی این امر باید زبان را از دو منظر تاریخی (ِDiachronic) و مقطعی (Synchronic) بررسی کرد. اگر زبان را در این دو منظر بررسی کنیم، خواهیم دید زبان فارسی از حیث تعاملات و اثربخشی اجتماعی دارای ظرفیت بالقوه و بالفعل عظیمی است که کمتر زبانی در دنیا چنین ویژگی‌هایی را دارا است. در نشستی که در سال ۱۸۷۲ در شهر برلین کشور آلمان با حضور ادیبان و زبان‌شناسان اروپایی برگزار شد، پس از بررسی شاخص‌های مختلف چهار زبانِ فارسی، لاتین، یونانی و سانسکریت به عنوان زبان‌های کلاسیک دنیا معرفی شدند.

دهقانکار در ادامه گفت: به‌واقع ما اکنون آثار حافظ، سعدی، مولانا و… را که قرن‌ها پیش زیسته‌اند می‌خوانیم، درک می‌کنیم و لذت می‌بریم. کلاسیک بودن زبان فارسی پتانسیل و بضاعت زبان فارسی است و بدان معنا است که این زبان اصطلاحا سرد و گرم دوران را چشیده و در مقابل ناگواری‌ها و ناملایمات تاب‌آوری داشته است. لذا وقتی از زبان فارسی نام می‌بریم، از تمدن دیرپایی که در آن در کنار خوشی‌ها، ناملایمات، جنگ‌ها، قحطی، بیماری و… بوده و از همه این‌ها به سلامت عبور کرده و صحیح و سالم به دست ما رسیده است، سخن می‌گوییم. شرط اساسی برای این‌که پدیده‌ای بتواند به تاب‌آوری جامعه در شرایط دشوار کمک کند این است که خود در مقابل ناملایمات تاب‌آوری داشته باشد. زبان فارسی این تاب‌آوری را در مقابل شرایط سخت بارها در طول تاریخ از خود نشان داده است.

او با مطرح کردن این‌که شاعران و ادیبان این سرزمین در اعصار مختلف با همه ناملایمات از جمله جنگ، بیماری، قحطی و… دست و پنجه نرم کرده‎‌اند، اظهار کرد: در دوران معاصر نیز شاهد هستیم که یکی از مولفه‌های اصلی و تاثیرگذار در انقلاب شکوهمند اسلامی و پس از آن شعر و ادبیات بوده است. در دوران دفاع مقدس نیز به همین شکل شاهد رویش‌هایی هستیم که اکنون در حوزه شعر و ادبیات اتفاق می‌افتد؛ شکل‌گیری ادبیات پایداری نیز حاصل برهم کنش سازنده ادبیات با معنویات دفاع مقدس به عنوان یک پدیده اجتماعی در تاریخ معاصر این سرزمین است؛ به دیگر سخن، زندگی ایرانیان در هیچ زمانه‌ای خالی از ادبیات نبوده و ادبیات نیز از زندگی و زمانه مردمان این سرزمین جدا نبوده است و این دو همیشه پا به پای هم پیش رفته‌اند.

ایوب دهقانکار در پایان سخنان خود با تشکر و قدردانی از کادر درمان کشور و مدافعان سلامت گفت: کرونا نیز بحرانی است که کشور ایران و جهان با آن دست و پنجه نرم می‌کند؛ همان‌طور که ادبیات در مقاطع بحرانی پیشین نقش‌آفرینی کرده است در این ایام نیز می‌تواند در کنار مردمان این سرزمین به تاب‌آوری بیشتر جامعه تا ریشه کنی کامل آن کمک شایانی کند.

در بخش دیگری از افتتاحیه وبینار بین‌المللی «ادبیات در روزگار کرونا» حمیدرضا نمازی با اشاره به این‌که ما در حوزه سلامت سخت محتاج این هستیم که دست طلب را به سمت ادبیات دراز کنیم، اظهار کرد: اولین نکته‌ای که فکر می‌کنم باید به آن توجه کرد مفهوم عمومی‌سازی سلامتی و عمومی‌سازی علم است و این ترجمه‌ای است از ارتباطات علم. بسیار مهم است که ما به هر حال نمی‌توانیم مفاهیم سلامت، پزشکی و بحران‌های مختلف را با همان زبان فنی به جامعه منتقل کنیم و از جامعه انتظار تبعیت داشته باشیم.

او در ادامه بیان کرد: برخی از متخصصان حوزه‌های مختلف برای این‌که مفهوم بیماری‌های گوناگون را ساده کنند تصمیم گرفتند رمان یا داستان بنویسند.

نمازی همچنین تصریح کرد: ادبیات فارسی در ایران محتاج جدی گرفتن عمومی‌سازی علم است؛ درحقیقت باید تبدیل به عصایی برای حوزه سلامت شود و بحران‌های این حوزه که بتواند این مفاهیم را برای مردم ساده و آسان کند. امروز به این نتیجه رسیدیم که باید به ارتباطات علم توجه شود.

دبیر علمی وبینار بین‌المللی «ادبیات در روزگار کرونا» سپس بیان کرد: یکی از بحث‌های بسیار مهم این همایش نیز تلاش برای عمومی‌سازی علم است. به واقع ادبیات هسته اصلی درمان و مراقبت است؛ همیشه در طول تاریخ و در همه‌گیری‌ها دوگانه‌ای بین مراقبت و درمان وجود داشت؛ اکنون نیز به نظر می‌رسد در عصر کرونا باید از ادبیات به مثابه امر مراقبتی در مقابل این بیماری سخن گفت و نقش مراقبتی ادبیات را در نظر گرفت.

او با اشاره به این‌که چیزی که می‌تواند خاطرات تلخ را حفظ کند ادبیات است، گفت: ما سال گذشته توانستیم درس ادبیات فارسی را که در رشته پزشکی مهجور بود زنده کنیم تا به کار طبابت بیاید. به‌واقع تاریخ پزشکی در این دیار با تاریخ ادبیات گره خورده است.

حمیدرضا نمازی همچنین اظهار کرد: در وبینار «بین‌المللی ادبیات در روزگار کرونا» بنا و توجه به این است که آمیختگی ادبیات و کرونا از یک امر تزیینی فراتر برود و نشان داده شود که ادبیات چه نقش بی‌بدیلی می‌تواند در درمان، مراقبت، حل بحران‌ها، ثبت و ضبط آن‌چه امروز می‌گذرد و در مستندسازی و روایت داشته باشد.

در پایان افتتاحیه «وبینار بین‌المللی ادبیات در روزگار کرونا» مصطفی راضی جلالی ضمن تشکر از کادر درمان و مدافعان سلامت، نسبت به این‌که ماحصل «وبینار بین‌المللی ادبیات در روزگار کرونا» به ماندگاری اثرات ادبیات در شرایط بحران کمک کند ابراز امیدواری کرد و گفت: ادبایی که وقتی همه‌جا را سکوت و رخوت گرفته بود، ننشستند و بلند شدند تا گرد رخوت را ابتدا از تن خودشان و سپس از جامعه بزدایند و با خلق آثاری که چند سال پس از این اتفاق و رخداد از انتهای اقیانوس بالا می‌آید خود را نشان می‌دهند.

مصطفی راضی جلالی در پایان سخنان خود بیان کرد: امیدوارم حاصل تلاش همکاران ما و استادانی که از پنج کشور در این وبینار حضور دارند در نهایت منتج به این نتیجه شود و اتفاقی که روزها و سال‌هاست منتظر آنیم تا از تهدیدها و تحدیدها فرصت بسازیم. بزرگان نظام و مملکت و زعمای قم بارها آروز کردند که از تهدیدها فرصت بسازیم و گاهی این فرصت‌ها را غنیمت ندانستیم و نتوانستیم از محدودیت‌ها فرصت بسازیم. امیدوارم این قدم خانه کتاب و ادبیات ایران سبب شود گامی هرچند کوتاه به سمت معرفی ادبیات در جامعه‌ای که اکنون بیش از هرچیزی به امید و نشاط نیاز دارد، برداشته شود.

علاوه بر افتتاحیه، یک نشست تخصصی از سلسله نشست‌های «وبینار بین‌المللی ادبیات در روزگار کرونا» در روز شنبه (نوزدهم تیرماه ۱۴۰۰) برگزار شد و بناست تا سه نشست تخصصی مرتبط با محورهای این وبینار نیز امروز (یکشنبه – بیستم تیرماه ۱۴۰۰) با حضور استادان بیش از ۱۵ دانشگاه و پژوهشگاه از کشورهای هند، افغانستان، ایران، پاکستان و عراق برگزار شود.

بنا بر اعلام، در نشست پایانی «وبینار بین‌المللی ادبیات در روزگار کرونا»، محسن جوادی (معاون امور فرهنگی وزارت فرهنگ و ارشاد اسلامی) نیز سخنرانی خواهد کرد.

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